PRODUCTION OF SALTED AND PRESSED ANCHOVIES (STOLEPHORUS SP.) AND IT’S QUALITY EVALUATION DURING STORAGE
Anchovies (Stolephorus spp.) are small salt water fish having silvery with blue-green backs. They usually never grow larger than 20 cm. Anchovies prefer the warmer waters around the world, where they swim in massive schools. They are related to the herring belonging to the family Clupeidae. Anchovy production can vary widely from year to year. The fish can appear in large schools for decades and disappear the next year, and then reappear the year after that, Donald and Beamish (2009).
Anchovies are rich in omega-3 oils, calcium and iron. They can be cooked fresh but are not always easy to get hold of and are usually sold packed in salt, tinned in oil, as a paste in jars or tubes, or as a sauce. They are also popularly used as a stuffing for olives. The three important pelagic species of India are the mackerels, sardines and anchovies. Anchovies (Stolephorus sp.) form an important component of purse-seine fishery of Indian coast. Very small quantity is going to fish market in fresh form.
The limiting factor in the effective utilization of anchovies are their small size, seasonal nature of the fishery forming gluts, sensitive to physical, time and temperature abuses, with the result that the entire quantity is either dried by spreading on beaches or salted and dried on mats and racks. This dried fish catch is mostly get utilized in the fish meal for cattle and fish feed, which fetches negligible cost. The traditional methods of salting and drying play an important role in minimizing fresh fish losses.
These methods rely on single preservation principle such as achieving low water activity (aw). Ideally, synergistic combinations might be useful which possess as a ‘hurdle’ to growth for particular type of microorganism. It is possible to inhibit spoilage with fewer and much lower hurdles than used in traditional techniques. The traditional seafood preservation methods are effective in controlling microbial activity from the point of safety, but have adverse organoleptic and textural properties. The current demand for ‘natural’ foods necessitates new approaches to seafood preservation. Traditional methods have evolved empirically from chance discoveries and were established by early civilizations. In India, the processing techniques have not changed much, in spite of enormous research towards improving its quality. The greatest advantages of traditional fish processing methods in India are that, they suit the food habits of the local population and are convenient to produce both in small and large scale, low cost in nature, easy to store and use. The objective of this study is to produce low cost anchovy product based on traditional technologies, which can be stored at ambient temperature. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to produce salted and pressed product from anchovies. They are found to be nutritious and convenient to use.
The methods of preparation, quality criteria and storage changes have been studied.Anchovies (Stolephorus commersoni, Stolephorus indicus) caught along the Mangalore coast (India) by purse-seines were used for the study. The freshly caught fish was iced at landing in the ratio of 1:1 and was immediately transported to the processing laboratory. The physical characteristics of fresh anchovies were determined by measuring total length, standard length and weight of whole fish. To get reliable representation of catch three batches of 50 fishes were selected at random in triplicate. The girth was measured using a Vernier Calliper. Total time elapsed after catch was about 5–6 h for further processing.
The moisture, protein and total ash content was estimated by AOAC method (1990). The total lipid was estimated by the method of Bligh and Dyer (1959). The sodium chloride was estimated by Volhards method as described in FAO (1981). The Total Volatile Bases Nitrogen (TVB-N), Trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) was determined by the method of Beatty and Gibbons (1937). The alpha amine nitrogen (AAN) content was estimated by the method of Pope and Stevan (1939). The free fatty acid and peroxide value of the extracted lipid was determined by the method of Olley and Lovern (1960) and Jacobs (1958) respectively.
MICROBIAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS
The microbiological analysis for Standard Plate Count (SPC) and halophiles was done using standard methods (APHA 1976). The sensory evaluation of fresh fish was conducted using the Torry’s Sensory Scale (Shewan et al. 1953). Five trained panel members were evaluated the raw fish and final product. The acceptability of the products was assessed using ten point hedonic rating through panel testing. Sensory and microbial analysis was carried out at an interval of 1 week for five times to evaluate the quality changes. The results of sensory analysis were statistically compared with biochemical characteristics using correlation coefficient (Snedecor and Cochran 1962).
The whole fishes were washed, weighed and subjected to two different methods of salting. Dry salting was done for 24 h, using salt fish ratio 1:4. Brining was carried out by immersing the fish in saturated salt solution. The salted and pressed anchovies were prepared according to the procedure described by Parry (1986). The whole fish was salted overnight using crystal salt, in 1:4 salt-fish ratio. After the salting period, the fishes were drained and packed in wooden press box. The wooden box was constructed using lightwood, measuring 30 × 20 × 21 cm from inside. The boxes are detachable, with wooden cover and provision for brine to drain off and also for placing weight over the lid. A weight of 10 kg was placed above it and was rested for about 36 h. The pressed fish was shaped into cakes using a plastic box, weighing 200 g each. And then they were packed in polythene bags and stored at ambient temperature (30–35oC) for 5 weeks.
All the results presented are the means of 3 batches of experiments in which triplicate samples were taken for each parameter from each batch. Data obtained were subjected to 1 way analysis of variance and the levels were differentiated using Duncan’s multiple range test (Steel and Torrie 1980). Significance was ascertained at p < 0.01, the correlation coefficient analysis was performed for the various methods used.
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